Understanding Biologic Therapy

Regenerative medicine relies on the use of biologic therapy. Biologics are natural products that we harvest and use to enhance the healing response. Biologic therapy has three main categories:


At RIO we have several types of regenerative medicine therapies we offer as in-office procedures. We offer hyaluronic acid injections (viscosupplementation), platelet-rich plasma (PRP), bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) and mesenchymal stem cell therapy. Regenerative medicine offers treatment options for many types of injuries and pain, learn more about each treatment below.

Hyaluronic Acid

Hyaluronic acid is a form of viscosupplementation used to help reduce pain and swelling in joints. Hyaluronic acid is a gel-like substance injected directly into the joint and is effective in treating osteoarthritis.

Platelet-Rich Plasma

Platelet-rich plasma therapy uses injections to accelerate healing of injuries. PRP can be used to treat injured tendons, ligaments, joints and muscles.

Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate

BMAC is the component of your bone marrow that contains anti-inflammatory proteins, growth factors, and mesenchymal stem cells. BMAC has been proven to help reduce pain related to injuries and promote soft tissue healing.

Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Mesenchymal stem cell therapy uses stem cells obtained from the bone marrow to stimulate healing. MSCs have the ability to reproduce and form more cells, as well as turn into cells that can form new cartilage, bone, tendon, muscle, and ligaments.

Growth Factor Therapy

Growth factor (GF) therapy consists of the harvest and delivery of growth factors to an injured site. An example of growth factor therapy is utilizing platelet-rich plasma (PRP). In this example, we collect autologous blood from the patient’s vein, centrifuge it down to prepare the platelet-rich plasma, and then inject it into the injured site to help stimulate the healing response.

Cell Therapy

Cell therapy consists of the harvest and delivery of healing cells to an injured site. An example of cell therapy is utilizing stem cells. In this example, we harvest bone marrow aspirate concentrate from the patient’s pelvis. We then prepare and centrifuge the bone marrow aspirate concentrate until we obtain mesenchymal stem cells. The stem cells are then injected into the site of injury, providing both mesenchymal stem cells and growth factors to the injured tissue. This provides both cell therapy and growth factor therapy with a single injection.

Tissue Therapy

Tissue therapy consists of the harvest and delivery of structural tissue to an injured site with the hope of gaining structural support with the addition of the new tissue. An example of tissue therapy is harvesting patella bone tendon bone (patella BTB autograft) for an ACL reconstruction (anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction). In this example, we harvest the patient’s patella tendon with bone on each end to form a patella bone tendon bone autograft (patella BTB autograft). The graft is then utilized to reconstruct the patient’s torn ACL ligament to stabilize the knee. Another example of tissue therapy is utilizing dermal allograft to fix a massive rotator cuff tear and perform a superior capsular reconstruction of the shoulder. In this example, we utilize a portion of cadaver skin (dermal allograft) to reconstruct the superior capsule of the shoulder and reinforce the arthroscopic rotator cuff repair of a large or massive rotator cuff tear.

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